1519: Leonardo da Vinci, the great Italian scientist, sculptor, and painter of masterpieces such as the Mona Lisa, dies in France. Learn more about Leonardo da Vinci.
1670: England's King Charles II grants a charter to the Hudson's Bay Company, giving it a trading monopoly and control over the region around Hudson Bay in North America. Learn more about the Hudson's Bay Company.
1863: During the American Civil War, Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson is accidentally shot by his own men at Chancellorsville, Virginia; he dies shortly after. Learn more about Stonewall Jackson.
1945: Berlin surrenders to Russian Allied forces after they stormed the German capital during World War II; less than a week later, the war in Europe ends. Learn more about World War II.
1994: South African President F. W. de Klerk concedes defeat and Nelson Mandela claims victory in the country's first multi-racial presidential election.